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August 2018 Br J Cardiol 2018;25:86–7 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.024

Artificial intelligence in cardiology: applications, benefits and challenges

Panos Constantinides, David A Fitzmaurice

Abstract

The introduction of such digital technologies as robotic implants, home monitoring devices, wearable sensors and mobile apps in healthcare have produced significant amounts of data, which need to be interpreted and operationalised by physicians and healthcare systems across disparate fields.1 Most often, such technologies are implemented at the patient level, with patients becoming their own producers and consumers of personal data, something which leads to them demanding more personalised care.2

This digital transformation has led to a move away from a ‘top-down’ data management strategy, “which entailed either manual entry of data with its inherent limitations of accuracy and completeness, followed by data analysis with relatively basic statistical tools… and often without definitive answers to the clinical questions posited”.3 We are now in an era of a ‘bottom-up’ data management strategy that involves real-time data extraction from various sources (including apps, wearables, hospital systems, etc.), transformation of that data into a uniform format, and loading of the data into an analytical system for final analysis.3

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August 2018 Br J Cardiol 2018;25:97–101 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.025

Impact of hyperkalaemia in managing cardiorenal patients – a healthcare professional perspective

Navneet Kalsi, Sarah Birkhoelzer, Philip Kalra, Paul Kalra

Abstract

A recent survey of healthcare professionals confirms that hyperkalaemia is considered as a common and important clinical issue for patients receiving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) inhibitors in particular. Successful interventions to manage hyperkalaemia appear beneficial rather than avoidance or dose reduction of these RAAS inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure, diabetic nephropathy or prior myocardial infarction.

Two newer potassium exchange resins, patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9), may offer improved predictability, tolerability, and efficacy for managing patients with hyperkalaemia.

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July 2018 Br J Cardiol 2018;25:115–7 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.018 Online First

A pulmonary triad in a patient with a giant left atrial myxoma

Andrea Calo, Madeleine Openshaw, Timothy J Bowker, Han B Xiao

Abstract

A 55-year-old man with suspected community-acquired pneumonia and atrial fibrillation was found to have a very large left atrial myxoma complicated with a pulmonary triad – pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary infarction, and pulmonary lymphadenopathy. The myxoma was successfully removed and complete resolution of all three pulmonary complications followed. He re-presented two weeks post-surgery with atrial flutter, which was medically treated and considered for ablation. We have taken the opportunity to undergo a mini-literature review on myxoma and its pulmonary complications.

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July 2018 Br J Cardiol 2018;25:107–9 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.019 Online First

Opinions on the expanding role of CTCA in patients with stable chest pain and beyond: a UK survey

Saad Fyyaz, Alexandros Papachristidis, Jonathan Byrne, Khaled Alfakih

Abstract

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) released an updated guideline on stable chest pain in 2016. They recommended that all patients with chest pain, typical or atypical, should be investigated with computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) in the first instance. Functional imaging tests were reserved for the assessment of patients with chest pain and known coronary artery disease (CAD) and for patients where the CTCA is equivocal or has shown CAD of uncertain significance. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines on stable chest pain, however, recommend functional imaging tests for all stable chest pain patients, with CTCA as an alternative in patients with low-to-intermediate likelihood of CAD. The ESC guidelines also allow for the use of the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) as an alternative to functional imaging tests in patients with low-to-intermediate likelihood of CAD, if functional imaging tests are not available.

Furthermore, traditionally, the aetiology of heart failure or left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was investigated with diagnostic invasive coronary angiography. More recently, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue characterisation was proposed as an effective alternative test. We conducted a survey of UK cardiologists’ opinions on the use of CTCA in patients with stable chest pain and in the investigation of the aetiology of heart failure.

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July 2018 Br J Cardiol 2018;25:110 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.020 Online First

Comprehensive study of routine clinical use of cardiac MRI in a district general hospital setting

George Abraham, Aamir Shamsi, Yousef Daryani

Abstract

The study sought to evaluate the indications, image quality, safety and impact on patient management of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a district general hospital setting.  The database was developed using retrospective analysis of patient records from the start of the local CMR service in January 2014 until January 2017. All 791 consecutive patients were included in the dataset.

The most important indications were the investigation of myocarditis/cardiomyopathies (54.5%), work-up of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD)/ischaemia (27.1%), and assessment of viability (9.1%). Image quality was diagnostic in 99.9% of cases. Mild adverse effects were reported for 3.8% of patients for stress CMR and in 1.1% of non-stress CMR. No serious adverse events were reported in this study population. In 26.5% of cases, CMR findings resulted in therapeutic modifications. In 18.1%, the final diagnosis based on CMR was different to that suspected before the CMR.

In conclusion, the findings of this study emphasise that CMR is a safe procedure with high image quality. In many cases, CMR can be shown to change a patient’s management plan.

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