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Tag Archives: haemoglobin

August 2011 Br J Cardiol 2011;18(Suppl 2):s1-s15

Anaemia in chronic heart failure – how common is it and what does it mean?

Iain Squire

Abstract

Prevalence In published reports of patients with heart failure, the prevalence of anaemia varies markedly, reflecting the very varied characteristics of the studied populations. In reports based upon clinical trials, the reported prevalence ranges from 10–25% (figure 1), while in cohorts of patients in observational or registry-based studies, it appears to be higher, from 15–50% (figure 2). This variation is unsurprising given the relatively selected nature of patients recruited to clinical trials in CHF. A reasonable overall estimate can be gleaned from a large systematic review of 34 studies, including more than 150,000 patients, in wh

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August 2011 Br J Cardiol 2011;18(Suppl 2):s1-s15

The origins of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure

Andrew L Clark

Abstract

Table 1. Origins of anaemia Haematinic deficiency The commonest single haematinic deficiency related to anaemia in patients with CHF is iron deficiency. Around half of all patients with anaemia have evidence of iron deficiency on the basis of abnormal results for serum iron, iron binding capacity and ferritin.1,2 Folate or vitamin B12 deficiency is relatively uncommon. Iron is used by the body not only for haemoglobin production but in a variety of enzyme systems, which may be affected by iron deficiency. There are many possible reasons for iron deficiency in patients with CHF. Dietary intake may be poor in the elderly population, and blood l

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August 2011 Br J Cardiol 2011;18(Suppl 2):s1-s15

Anaemia treatment in chronic heart failure

Iain C Macdougall

Abstract

The situation in the anaemia of CHF is less advanced, but in recent years there has been increasing interest in the use of both of these treatment strategies. A few small clinical trials have suggested some potential benefits of stimulating erythropoiesis with ESA therapy in heart failure anaemia, whilst the administration of IV iron has shown similar benefits even in the absence of ESA therapy. Indeed, the recently published FAIR-HF (Ferinject® Assessment in patients with Iron deficiency and chronic Heart Failure) trial1 has opened the eyes of cardiologists to the potential for this latter treatment strategy to improve the symptoms and sig

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August 2011 Br J Cardiol 2011;18(Suppl 2):s1-s15

Lessons to be learned from recent studies of anaemia management in chronic kidney disease

Philip A Kalra

Abstract

Epidemiology of anaemia in CKD The likelihood of anaemia occurring in CKD increases as renal function declines. All patients receiving haemodialysis therapy will require treatment for anaemia, and so too will almost all of those receiving peritoneal dialysis (the difference accounted for by haemodialysis exposing the patient to a greater inflammatory state, and also regular minor blood losses). Below a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 45 ml/min, erythropoietin secretion by the kidney declines and when patients enter stage 4 CKD (eGFR < 30 ml/min), around 30–40% will be anaemic. Aetiology of anaemia in CKD Figure 1. Factors contributi

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