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Cardiovascular disease: the state of the nation, and the NHS Long Term Plan

September 2021 Br J Cardiol 2021;28(suppl 2):S3–S6 doi:10.5837/bjc.2021.s06

Cardiovascular disease: the state of the nation, and the NHS Long Term Plan

Shahed Ahmad, Xenophon Kassianides, Simon Thackray

Abstract

A silent pandemic Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the primary cause of death worldwide, with an estimate of nearly 18 million lives lost each year, as figures from the World Health Organisation suggest.1,2 As life-expectancy and industrialisation have increased, a significant epidemiological transition has taken place, leading to a long-standing global pandemic in CVD.3 CVD is an umbrella term including disease states of both the heart and the vessels, and, therefore, has pathological implications and associations with most organs, including brain and kidney. It has a multi-faceted impact, not only in terms of mortality and morbidity but also

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