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May 2018 Br J Cardiol 2018;25(2) doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.014 Online First

3D echocardiography: benefits and steps to wider implementation

Kevin Cheng, Mark J Monaghan, Antoinette Kenny, Bushra Rana, Rick Steeds, Claire Mackay, DeWet van der Westhuizen

Abstract
Advancements in computer and transducer technologies over the past two decades have allowed the development of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (3DE), which offers significant additional clinical information to traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (2DE). However, the majority of departmental studies today remain 2D, and adoption of 3DE as a complementary tool into mainstream clinical practice has not been without its difficulties. Although cardiologists have a range of alternative imaging modalities at their disposal to investigate cardiovascular structure and function, given the pace of technological innovation and improvements in data analysis, the field of 3DE is one of great expectation and is likely to be of increasing clinical importance. In this review, we discuss the role of 3DE, its advantages and limitations, and how novel technology will help workflow and expand its routine use.
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April 2018 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.010 Online First

Celebrating 25 years of the Scottish Cardiac Society

Hany Eteiba

Abstract
In September last year, the Scottish Cardiac Society (SCS) celebrated its 25th anniversary with a two-day symposium held in Crieff – the same venue where the inaugural meeting took place in 1992.
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April 2018 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.011 Online First

The effect of EECP on functional exercise capacity and symptom burden in refractory angina

Noman Ali, Haqeel A Jamil, Mohammad Waleed, Osama Raheem, Peysh Patel, Paul Sainsbury, Christopher Morley

Abstract

Refractory angina (RA) is characterised by persistent anginal symptoms despite optimal medical therapy and revascularisation. Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is a technique that has shown promise in the treatment of this condition but is poorly utilised in the UK. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of EECP on anginal symptoms in patients with RA from a UK centre.

This retrospective study assessed the effectiveness of EECP at improving exercise capacity, anginal symptom burden and anginal episode frequency using pre- and post-treatment six-minute walk test (6MWT) results, Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) scores and symptom questionnaires, respectively.

Fifty patients with a median age of 67 years (interquartile range [IQR] 14) underwent EECP between 2004 and 2015. The majority had undergone prior revascularisation (84%; 42/50) via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and/or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Significant improvements were noted in 6MWT result (282 vs. 357 m; p<0.01), CCS score (3.2 vs. 2.0; p<0.01) and weekly anginal episode frequency (20 vs. 4; p<0.01). No adverse outcomes related to EECP were noted.

Our study demonstrates use of EECP to be associated with significant improvements in exercise capacity and anginal symptom burden.

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April 2018 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.012 Online First

A study in the diagnosis and management of syncope: a retrospective review

Joseph Wilson, Donna Dalgetty, Selda Ahmet, Nida Taher, Mehran Asgari

Abstract

A study of 500 patients was conducted to ascertain how syncope is managed at the Ipswich Hospital NHS Trust. This was based on the variation in approach across the country despite the guidance from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the Heart Rhythm Society. Similar studies in the UK have indicated a number of inconsistencies in both the management and diagnosis of patients with suspected syncope.

We discuss the role of a syncope pathway, the need for a separate syncope clinic and for syncope experts.

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April 2018 doi: 10.5837/bjc.2018.013 Online First

A novel ambulatory syncope assessment unit is safe and cost-effective in a low-risk patient cohort

Hamish I MacLachlan, Christopher J Allen, Gothandaraman Balaji

Abstract

A retrospective analysis of 50 inpatients admitted with syncope was undertaken to evaluate the safety and cost-effectiveness of a novel outpatient syncope clinic recently introduced within an emergency ambulatory care unit at a northwest London hospital together with review of echocardiographic parameters in syncope. Outcome measures included length of inpatient admission, frequency of cardiology review, 30-day readmission and 90-day mortality rates. The same variables were assessed prospectively in 50 inpatients referred to the syncope assessment unit (SAU). All 100 patients were deemed low risk, as defined by the San Francisco syncope rule. Patients under the age of 18 years and those investigated for conditions other than syncope were excluded. Echocardiographic parameters such as E/A ratio, left atrial (LA) dimension, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and E/E ratio were statistically analysed for their association with episodes of syncope.

The standard-care group remained in hospital for a median four days at a cost of €582 (£512). Waiting time for an SAU appointment was a median two days. Inpatient waiting time for 24-hour Holter and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) investigations were significantly longer for the standard-care group (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the rates of cardiology review, diagnostic yield, hospital readmission and mortality between the two groups. The SAU will save a projected annual cost of €108,371 (£95,232) on inpatient bed days. The fractional cost of clinical assessment on the SAU is €35 (£31) per patient. Among the echocardiographic parameters analysed, increased E/E ratio was associated with syncope (p=0.001).

In conclusion, the introduction of a novel low-risk SAU promotes early discharge from hospital with prompt outpatient medical review and shorter inpatient waiting times for diagnostic investigations. Our data suggest this is both cost-effective and safe. E/E echo parameter was observed as a significant parameter in low-risk syncope.

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