Bleeding is one of the complications associated with percutaneous coronary intervention from the femoral route due to the use of potent antiplatelet therapies including adenosine diphosphate receptor blockers and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Complications include haematoma, retroperitoneal haemorrhage, pseudoaneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, arterial occlusion, femoral neuropathy and infection. Complications for diagnostic procedures are lower due to the lack of antiplatelet therapies on board. Often, incorrect location of the femoral artery puncture site results in complications. Puncturing below the femoral bifurcation can result in psedoaneurysm, haematoma and arteriovenous fistulas, whereas retroperitoneal haemorrhage is caused by high femoral punctures. Identification of bleeding and vascular complications is paramount as bleeding is associated with adverse events. Techniques to reduce the risk of femoral arterial complications include the use of ultrasound scan or fluoroscopy guided femoral punctures. Furthermore, the micropuncture technique has been shown to reduce complications but is not widely adopted. Ultimately, the radial route is preferable to the femoral route as vascular complications are significantly lower.
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