The amyloidoses comprise a collection of disorders in which proteins, some native and some mutated, are deposited in tissues. These proteins self-assemble themselves to form an ordered fibrillar matrix termed amyloid. Currently, more than 20 different proteins have been identified, the most common with as many as 100 different mutations per protein. Despite these figures, the conditions that arise clinically are not that common. This undoubtedly results in a number of such individuals not being identified, or typically only when it is too late to effect a cure.
This article describes the features, diagnosis and treatments for the different types of amyloid that affect the heart.